Port Arthur originally was a small timber camp and as other penal settlements closed it grew into the major prison for secondary offenders - transported men who had reoffended in the colony. Port Arthur held about 1200 convicts and fewer then 100 soldiers and grew to include a substantial Military Barracks and Hospital. The guard tower formed the formal front of the Barracks and the facade of the hospital still survives.
The Separate Prison began in 1847 but not yet complete in this image can be seen on the hill. This building marked a change in the philosohy of reform and punishment from physical punishment to solitary confinement and psychological intimidation. A new and substantial Church demonstrated the central role of the Church in the life of the settlement. Both survive but altered by fire and rebuilding.
View of the penitentiary originally built as a flour mill and converted to accommodate the extremely dangerous convicts from the Norfolk Island Settlement in separate cells. This Separate Prison was extended and now included a wing for the violently insane. The other major change was the broad path and jetty on the waterfront.
This illustration was done during the later period of occupation. Convicts in foregound working of timber camp. This illustration was done during the later period of occupation. Convicts in foregound working at the timber camp.