Cape Town to Lyttelton
Castle Eden
Church service at sea...On Sunday mornings all the passengers would have dressed in their best clothes and assembled on deck for their church service. The service would have been taken by the Rev Jackson. There was sure to have been a choir of young ladies to lead the singing. The captain likely made a practice each Sunday of writing, the ship�s position on a blackboard at noon so the passengers could see the progress of the past week.
The daily main meal always at midday, was cooked in a common pot. Each mess had a numbered wooden or metal token attached for identification to its particular lump of meat and also to its net of preserved potatoes, a plum duff of boiled rice which was pudding. The evening meal consisted of biscuit and butter with tea to drink and since there was seldom any shortage at the midday meal, there were cold leftover meats for tea. The meals were monotonous - porridge every morning, 2 days they had salt beef and boiled rice and 3 days pork and pea soup, and 2 days of preserved meat and preserved potatoes The most common complaint concerned bread - it was either stale or when freshly baked on board, sour and of poor quality. The rough seas had everything on the table sliding and caused unexpected variations to the menu when the weekly provisions would get all mixed together, such as salt, tea, coffee and treacle! The second cabin was treated in the same way as the steerage but the fortunate inhabitants of the first class cabin had a good deal of fresh food shipped to them at the beginning of the voyage and  often had a milch cow. They had the luxury of their meals cooked by a steward. The narrow decks were cumbered with a pen of squealing pigs and sheep and an array of poultry hutches. Occasionally this livestock was killed and consumed on board and was supplemented by a pedigree lamb or bull or one or two valuable dogs which passengers were bringing out for use on their farms.
Mon: Nov 25, 1850: Strong breeze and squally - going 11 knots. The handcuffs have been removed from the prisoner with the promise to the Captain that he would behave properly in future, so he was released from confinement.
Tue: Nov 26, 1850: Latitude 31 degrees 50". Cold and very squally with rain. 11 1/2 knots. The wind has increased in fury and the ship was knocked about - to use a sailor's term "like blazes." The sailors were obliged to take in most of the sails in the teeth of the gale. When the rain ceased, the sun shone for a few minutes at noon, the sextant obligingly showed and then again the storm continued to rage the rest of the day. The waves rose mountains high, with the wind howling dismally in the rigging. On goes our gallant ship, bowing to the storm. Her timbers shiver and creak, but are held safe and sound throughout the raging of the elements. Night fell with an inky blackness and those among us who retired early, lay nervously listening to the deafening roar of the wind and waves and only a few slept soundly.
Wed: Nov 27, 1850: Latitude 34 degrees 21 ", long. 14 degrees west. Beautiful weather - it has changed completely. The sun shines brightly and what sight could be more beautiful, on this bright sunny morning, than our proud ship, with her snow white sails outspread, at 3 knots, skimming gracefully along over foam tipped waves - a rival to the snowy-clad gulls - and seemingly as buoyant. The fresh cool air is exhilarating and how health giving the steady breeze. How fair and sweet Nature appears with her cloudless blue skies, which are reflected as in a mirror by the heaving ocean - every wavelet to the east tipped with gold by the glowing sun. All passengers felt in harmony with the magnificent and peaceful scene; and bursts of song arose from many a tuneful throat, from the sailors who pull merrily on the ropes to the passengers who loiter or pace the deck to enjoy the morning's beauty. Presently the wind fell. The day grew warmer. By midday the sun is scorching in its intensity and there is a dead calm. A great number of birds are flying about the ship - an albatross, the king eagle of the ocean - poised in the air, or, as it seemed floating with outstretched wings high overhead, or gliding along smoothly over the waves, ever and anon, rising and falling, as it followed the motion of the rocking billows, seemingly without exertion, and enjoying its flight of freedom over the restless waters. Seen too, were two cape hens, Cape pigeons and the sailors (Jack Tars) said that we should have some dirty weather as Mother Careys chickens always come before a storm - an opinion disputed by some passengers.. Evening comes at last and there is a general expression of relief. How pleasant the fresh cool air after the pitiless scorching rays of the noonday sun, which is bidding us goodnight in a rosy glow, and whose golden rays linger long after he has dipped beyond the western horizon, and the trembling cloudlets become transformed into a magnificent mass of changeful colour; gold rimmed and ruby tinted giving place to deeper rose before gradually declining to purple. As the last golden ray of the departing sun disappears, and the deepest grey and dark purple prevails, the sky is bedecked with diamond jewellery - thickly studded with twinkling gems to welcome dusky night. Luna is a bright thin circlet, smiling approvingly, as she too in the west prepares to follow the sun's example, but not before she has seen her face reflected in the starry gems in the mirror of the shimmering ocean. Boreas is silent awhile, then a gentle zephyr comes sighing along and idly stirs the sails of the good ship, which eagerly spreads her wings as if to fly once more, but all to no purpose. The breeze quietly came and as quietly passed on, just rippling the waters of the ocean in passing playfulness. Night comes after the toil and heat of the day, and every one is glad of the change and has brought rugs and shawls on deck to watch the sunset and enjoy the evening. One and all remark" What a lovely evening." Longfellow had such an evening in his mind when he wrote - "Peace seemed to reign upon earth, and the restless heart of the ocean Was for a minute consoled. All sounds were in harmony blended." Luna looks slily down on three particularly happy young couples who are promenading and talking nonsense suitable to the occasion. The Castle Eden has her fair share of Lovers. Edwin and Angelina are generally to be found on board vessels bound for long ocean voyages, and manage to be happy under most circumstances. It matters little if they are at sea or on land so long as they are together. They seem utterly oblivious to all discomforts during that particularly absorbing portion of their existence. Yes, the Castle Eden has her share indeed, as all on the ship will soon learn. All such devoted knights and loving maidens do the same thing - get married and settle down to a prosaic every-day life, imitating the example of their matter-of-fact elders. Would such particular couples hesitate? Certainly not. Cupid has been busy, and at this very moment A is asking Miss B to name the "happy day." What does she answer? Ah, it is not intended for our ears, but without doubt it is satisfactory to A judging by his radiant smile, and - but we must intrude no longer, it is hardly fair. Ah, there is D asking the same question, I declare, and pretty Miss E is blushing, no doubt, if one could get a glance at her face. Love is a strange phenomenon pertaining to humanity, instantaneous, instinctive and invincible, with varying intensity, and often transmutable, a mystery of mysteries to the uninitiated. Well may the poet describe it - "Like Dian's kiss - unasked, unsought - Love gives itself, but is not bought, Nor voice, nor sound betrays Its deep impassioned gaze." Some young men however seem to find the fragrant weed more delightful than the companionship of young ladies - or affect to do so. Perhaps, too, "grapes are sour", as the fox thought when they were beyond his reach. For others, the evening is filled with discussion as they enjoy the fresh evening air and many thoughts would return to the homes they have left in Old England and the friends so far away. Singing breaks forth " A life on the Ocean Wave" and the groups talking has stopped and other singers follow, then all arise to attend family worship, and the evening closes with the singing of the grand old Evening Hymn. The ship becomes comparatively quiet as we retire but for a few gentlemen who usually stay an hour or two later every night. November 28, 1850: Thursday: Beautiful weather - going three knots at 2 p.m. - the breeze freshens.
Fri: Nov 29, 1850: Boreas furiously raged and stormed and the rain fell copiously on the mom. It is exceedingly cold and we would have taken no notice if home in England for it would have been expected as the usual November weather. However, having sampled a tropical climate, the change is felt keenly and rugs are in demand and winter attire is donned. The elements warred all day, and by nightfall, the gale has become a hurricane. The ship has got considerably knocked about and rolls tremendously giving all a very uncomfortable time. Those who braved the deck saw a grampus whale for the first time and others amused themselves by taking aim at the swooping albatrosses. The doctor shot one of the kingly birds, which fell with a broken wing within reach and a splendid specimen was thus secured. Some cape hens and a cape pigeon are seen.
Sat: Nov 30, 1850: The wind is against us. 2 albatross are caught - one measured 10 feet from the tips of its wings.
Sun: Dec 1, 1850: Strong wind and very cold. All are wrapped up in rugs, furs etc. as the weather has not improved. Divine services are held but Sacrament is postponed until the following Sunday A ship is in sight.
Mon: Dec 2, 1850: A strong breeze but not as cold as yesterday. Another albatross is caught and the lucky possessors of birds are discussing the easiest methods of stuffing them. Mr Calvert at once set about the work watched surrounded by a bevy of admiring onlookers. The chief topic of conversation is about putting in at the Cape. We are now latitude 35 degrees 58" south.
Tue: Dec 3, 1850: The breeze not as strong as yesterday and very mild. As the weather improved the ladies reappeared on deck, pleased to be once more out in the open air. The conversations as usual turned to the new homes to be made and of future plans. Many on board had brought plants, trees and seeds and anticipated the future pleasure of making a garden which should be a mine of wealth and beauty around their doors.
Wed: Dec 4, 1850: Calm until 6 p.m. when a fresh breeze sprang up.

Thur: Dec 5, 1850: The same as yesterday - a dead calm with the ship not moving. Long 4 degrees 30" west.

Fri: Dec 6 1850: Calm until 2 p.m. before any breeze sprang up. Speed at one knot only an hour. The distance to the Cape was reckoned to be about 900 miles.

Sat: Dec 7, 1850: A strong breeze sprang up and sent the ship merrily along at the rate of eleven knots per hour. The meridian was passed and the distance in time between that and Greenwich proved interesting to the young people on board.
Sun: Dec 8, 1850: A strong breeze and rough weather prevailed - a couple of the steerage passengers had their banns of marriage published in church by the Bishop for the first time. A gale being expected, all but four of the sails were taken down. Eleven knots per hour was the rate of sailing and as the distance was now 500 miles, the captain hopes to be at the cape on Tuesday.
Mon: Dec 9, 1850: A fair breeze - a lot of the ugly, broad-nosed grampus whales were passed; they were judged to be about twenty-five feet in length. In the evening some excitement was caused amongst the women in the steerage. They mutinied against the doctor because he had ordered the women's water closet to be nailed up as it had become a nuisance to the ship. In defiance, a troop of them besieged it, broke open the door and took possession - the sailor's considered this a fine exploit.
Tue: Dec 10, 1850: A fair breeze - it is expected that we will be at the Cape tomorrow.
Wed: Dec 11, 1850: Land is descried. At morn, it was seen quite distinctly - the rugged and uneven heights terminating in the hummocks which form the veritable Cape of Good Hope. Sketches are made to send home with letters. Sailors got the anchor-chain in readiness and the ship was lying well. With the steady breeze all hands expected to be at anchor at 3 in the afternoon but then the wind changed to the south-east, and we were all disappointed when the captain ordered the ship about and we had to tack back again over the same course which we had just come till nearly 12 p.m. and then set sail for the Cape once more. "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick."
Thur: Dec 12, 1850: A fine morning and all rose early. The knowledge that land was near was sufficient to arouse the most inveterate sluggard on board. Land was again in sight and hearts beat high in the expectation of going ashore soon. It was foreign looking scene, different from our home scenery. There is a strange hill with a flag on top which is called the Lion's Hump, Head or Rump and the flag is used by the signal station to tell the town of our arrival. We have a hasty dinner as we are all anxious for a nearer view of the Cape of the hopeful name. The wind rose and blew very hard. Our ship dropped anchor at 2, lying in Cable Bay. Some of the passengers go ashore find that 9 out of 10 people are black and like the place very much but others prefer to wait till the next day to go ashore as the wind blew still harder, until it became a raging gale - all on board expected to be blown out to sea. Some excitement was occasioned by the efforts of a small boat which was tossing about on the foaming billows, at the mercy of wind and wave, striving in vain to make the shore. At last it was obliged to fetch to the Castle Eden, and the two sailors, with their passengers got safely aboard. Another small boat was not so fortunate and is blown adrift. The wind is from the south-east and the scene of the capital of the colony is most wonderful. It is situated in a most beautiful spot at the base of Table Mountain, which towers above to the height of 3,500 ft. The mountain is both magnificent and peculiar; it is flat at the summit - hence its name - it reminds one of a huge ruined fort. Immense fleecy clouds began to roll forward and descend far down the sides of the mountain and hang like a dense shroud over the town and apparently this cloud always makes its appearance when the south-east wind blows and from it's appearance and whiteness, is called the "Tablecloth." The bay is now in an awful state, the waves lashing themselves into foam under the fierce fury of the wind. The scene is so awe-inspiring in its grandeur we cannot feel impressed by the peril of our position. Ships are in a dangerous situation. Well earned is the sobriquet cabo tormentoso, bestowed by navigators in days gone by. Its storms call forth the name from those who were forced to undergo the unpleasant experience. Rough was the storm and mountains high rose the rocking billows, when night closed in; few on board were so heedless of their peril as to allow Morpheus to enfold them unconscious in his strong arms throughout the lonely midnight hours.
Fri: Dec 13, 1850: The day has dawned clear and bright in Table Bay and all signs of the gale have disappeared. All who have remained on board decide to go ashore as soon as possible. While lounging on the deck we were interested in the movements of a bumboat manned by natives, which soon pulled alongside and offered fruit and vegetables for sale. Gladly we bought fruit which consisted of oranges, lemons, pears, apricots and Cape plums. The boat was loaded with other things, all of which were sold to the ship. Bread, tortoises, cucumbers and all types of vegetables which were much appreciated by all as we have long been weary of our beef and biscuit fare. Never was fruit more welcome and vegetables more sought after. The ladies considered the natives horribly ugly and even the gentlemen were forced to admit that they were not handsome or prepossessing in appearance, and that their jargo was un-musical as well as unintelligible to English ears. Ashore the town is astonishing - well laid out and the streets well made and wide. Many have a stream of clear water running through them and are planted on each side with trees. The houses are all flat-roofed but are large and commodious and are chiefly built either of red granite or brick. The appearance of the town is neat and comfortable; there are some fine squares and lovely gardens. Splendid and elegant buildings meet the eye on every side. There are several churches and other fine public buildings. A stroll through the town was followed by a walk through the Government or Botanic Gardens where the Governor - Sir Harry Smith - resides. It is a very pictuesque place with some beautiful rose borders. The sun's heat is scorching and our skin begins to burn as we continued our walk. The new Roman Catholic church which is in the course of erection is the next attraction before having dinner. Several Europeans are seen about town - all men - who are obliged to wear veils, on account of the dust which is a nuisance and the heat. No white ladies are seen abroad in the daytime - they don't go out all except in the evenings.
Letters written by Surgeon-Superintendent Dr Haylock to the Canterbury Association pointing out they had been deceived in the quality of the provisions for all classes of passengers, that steerage passengers were experiencing suffering due to the confined accommodation of their berths, problems with the water closet siting and a mutinous ship's crew.

Dec 14, 1850: Saturday: Still in Table Bay. The excessive heat has forced us to admit that on no account would we live at Cape Town, beautiful place though it is. A magnificent view of the bay and surroundings was obtained from the summit of Table mountain. Devotees of the fragrant weed were laying in a stock of tobacco and cigars, which were very cheap. Havannahs were sold two for a penny. Manillas a penny each were excellent and a stick of Cavendish tobacco was procurable at the same price. After sleeping on board the Castle Eden some passengers wishing to go ashore were seated in a boat in readiness to start when a great row commenced on deck. Two sailors wanted to go ashore but the second mate would not allow them. Just as the boat was putting off, the two men slid down the mast into the boat and would not move out again. The second mate, determined that they would not outwit him, at once made the mast fast to the ship. This act caused a terrible row; not a man would help the second mate, and the boat thus lashed to our ship was violently knocked about by the sea against the sides of the vessel, and almost broken to pieces. The passengers could not get out of the boat and at last the sailors in the ship let go the rope that held the boat fast to the Castle Eden. The passengers wanted to get back on board but the sailors would not let them do as they wished - "We will put you overboard sooner than go back" they said fiercely as they took possession of the helm, so the two unwilling passengers were forced to go ashore with them. When the captain was informed of the affair, he had the three sailors arrested and taken in custody for mutiny. The first mate was tried and sentenced to pay a fine of �5 or undergo two month's imprisonment.

Dec 15, 1850: Sunday: Still in Table Bay. The majority of the ship's company went en masse to hear Bishop Jackson preach in St George's Church. A brig came into the Bay with immigrants from London, 120 days on the passage and four days without provisions and water.

Mon: Dec 16, 1850: Still in Table Bay. The second mate Calvert and some of the men belonging to the Castle Eden struck and were arrested for refusing to do their work. Each got thirty days "nut-cracking" Fortunately the Lady Nugent was in port. She had just arrived at the Cape from New Zealand (having taken Mr Robert Godley thither). The third mate (Mr. Heyward) of the Lady Nugent was promoted and took the position ofd second mate on the Castle Eden. This change and the trial settled the mutiny, and the rowdy sailors received their just punishment and the passengers were able to return to the ship.

Tue: Dec 17, 1850: At noon, the ship is in a state of great confusion. Several policemen came on board and took away the rest of the men who refused to work, and a few new sailors came to take their places.
Wed: Dec 18, 1850: Day of intended departure - shipping new hands (these were men imprisoned at the Cape from other passing ships!)
Thu: Dec 19, 1850:  Provisions on board (except fresh meat) Ready for sea but some of the old hands had thrown the windlass handle overboard delaying departure until a new handle replacedment is found.
Fri: Dec 20, 1850: Waiting for a new handle. We have had fresh provisions all the time we have been here.
Sat: Dec 21, 1850: Again the good ship Castle Eden makes preparations for departure and we weighed anchor at 12 noon and glad to resume our voyage, we again set sail, taking a south-east course. Two passengers are left behind (Henry and George Beechey). We watched the land which disappeared so quickly from view and waved farewell to Cape Town, whose open markets under the spreading boughs of some trees and watered streets had been so interesting. Farewell to the wondrous Table Mountain, whose rocky sides were overgrown by gorgeous flowering masses of wild geraniums and to the curious "Lion's Hump", a mount which in shape resembles a lion resting with its head raised as though watching something. We prepare to run along the line of 40 degrees south latitude as closely as the wind will permit. A rough sea, mountains high, caused general suffering from mal-de-mer. After dinner. the seas became even rougher and all passengers are continually knocked about. Boxes and other articles had got loose and were rolling about in chaotic confusion.
Sun: Dec 22, 1850: Divine service and everything else was conducted with difficulty, through the heaving and rolling motions of the ship. Going 12 knots. Mr. Davidson and Miss Godfrey asked in Church and the banns of marriage published - one proclaimed for the first time and the other for the second time. Cupid had indeed been active and now Hymen was about to complete his work.
Mon: Dec 23, 1850: A fine day - rough, warm and windy. A ship in sight but she would not answer us.
Tue: Dec 24, 1850: A fine breeze - weather much the same. Time is spent stoning raisins for the Christmas pudding. In the evening there was great jollification - it was Christmas Eve at last - a memorable evening at sea and time to reflect on the last Christmas Eve spent by a fireside at home, while the log blazed and crackled merrily in the hearth; merry voices had echoed through the house, there had been music of the dancing feet of youth while aged and dear faces had smiled approvingly. Now all was changed - in old England sweet Christmas carols were being sung, amid the glistening snow and under the festoons of holly and mistletoe. The pilgrims who had set out in the first three ships were spending Christmas in their new home and in a warmer clime, while the Southern Cross shone brightly overhead. The Cressy was still at sea and our Castle Eden is still traversing mid-ocean. The weather may be too warm and rough, but what matters the warring of elements to those on our ship, for universal good-humour and merriment prevails. It is Christmas Eve - a season of joy and goodwill. We pilgrims are enjoying ourselves in various ways. There is no hanging of holly or mistletoe, no snow covered landscape, but all around, the restless heaving and tossing blue ocean, flecked with foam. How like, yet totally different is the scene to any that we voyagers are familiar with - In England the same joyous merriment prevails, the same carols are being sung, the same music and dances are in full swing. We who have left behind friends are thinking of those familiar faces and sigh as we think - "I wonder if they miss me at home?" Yet, we know, in that far distant home, the thought is uppermost, while the eye rests not upon some well-known figure, "I wonder where he (or she) is, and what is he doing now; does he think of us at home?" The hour is late when our merriment ceases and the bishop solemnly offers up prayers suitable to the occasion which his little flock join in devoutly.
Wed: Dec 25, 1850: The weather is all it should be - calm and clear. A short distance away are some sperm whales. These monsters of the deep were disporting themselves in the morning sunshine while we passengers on the ship, indulged in games and sports also. Nearly the whole day was thus spent. Of course there was a huge joint of roast beef for the first class, Christmas pudding and sparkling champagne and many other delicacies graced the festive board; the steerage passengers dined on roast mutton and Plum pudding. This Christmas at sea will never be forgotten. A child is christened.
Thur: Dec 26, 1850: A steady breeze and very rough - going 8 knots. Hardly any breakfast could be got only cold meat and bread. All sails are taken down as the gale increases in fury - many retire to their beds but not to sleep.
Fri: Dec 27, 1850: Very rough - going 9 knots - the wind raged fiercely, upsetting everything in the ship. We remained battened down.
At midday, the main meal, was cooked in a common pot. Each mess had a numbered wooden or metal token attached for identification to its particular lump of meat and also to its net of preserved potatoes a plum duff a boiled rice which was pudding. The evening meal consisted of biscuit and butter with tea to drink and since there was seldom any shortage at the midday meal, there were cold leftover meats for tea. The meals were monotonous - porridge every morning, 2 days they had salt beef and boiled rice and 3 days pork and pea soup, and 2 days of preserved meat and preserved potatoes The most common complaint concerned bread - it was either stale or when freshly baked on board, sour and of poor quality. The rough seas had everything on the table sliding and caused unexpected variations to the menu when the weekly provisions would get all mixed together, such as salt, tea, coffee and treacle! The second cabin was treated in the same way as the steerage but the fortunate inhabitants of the first class cabin had a good deal of fresh food shipped to them at the beginning of the voyage and had often a milch cow. They had the luxury of their meals cooked by a steward. The narrow decks were cumbered with a pen of squealing pigs and sheep and an array of poultry hutches.Occasionally this livestock was killed and consumed on board and supplemented by a pedigree lamb or bull or one or two valuable dogs which passengers were bringing out for use on their farms.

Sun: Dec 29, 1850: A trifle more calm than yesterday and a good breakfast was greatly appreciated by we tempest tossed voyagers. Divine services were held as usual and another couple asked in church so two marriages were proclaimed. In the evening, of most interest to our ladies, Mrs Rowley's infant was christened. The tiny morsel of humanity was enfolded in the strong arms of the church and unconscious of its strange surroundings, was afterwards petted and admired by all mothers and many of the younger ladies present.
Mon: Dec 30, 1850: Still blowing a gale. The wind is dead against the ship for ten hours. Up till this time since we left the Cape, the winds had been favourable, always SE by E. The weather too, was bitterly cold.
Tue: Dec 31, 1850: A strong breeze - the weather has become warm with the wind change and our ship once again speeds swiftly onward over the trackless waves. A ship is in sight. In the afternoon the deck presented an animated appearance; sports and games of various kinds were indulged in for this was the last day of the old year. New Year's Eve was spent pleasantly and as another year passed away, many looked back on last New Year's day, and then thought of the present time - the opening of a new epoch in their life's history. The past year had brought much sorrow and many regrets to some, but not unmixed with gleams of happiness, while others had nothing but regret, and hoped that the coming year would prove as peaceful to them as the past. All of us had taken a strange and eventful path. What would the coming year bring forth? Who could answer? The ship, however, should keep up old customs, and the Old Year was "seen Out" amid the joyful and warm wishes for a "Happy New Year."
Wed: Jan 1, 1851: New Year's Day - the year opened full of promise as far as the weather was concerned. The day was beautifully fine and fresh. There was a hind quarter of mutton for dinner. We had now reached longitude 56 degrees east of Greenwich.
Thur: Jan 2, 1851: Wind against us and squally. .
Fri : Jan 3, 1851: Wind fair - ship going 8 knots.
There were days with a fair wind when spirits were high and the Castle Eden vessel moved along at a good pace of fourteen knots but others when the wind came from the wrong direction allowing the ship to travel at less than one knot an hour and so make very little progress by the end of the day. The passage would seem at times like this to be going to take for ever. On a fine day the passengers were delighted by the porpoises turning over and over close to the side of the ship and when the sea was like glass, so smooth and clear the passengers would fish over the side in the hope of some fresh food.
As the voyage progressed there would have been storms such as people from the land never visualised happening. The wind raged to a fearful height and whistled through the rigging as the ship rocked like a cork and raced up and down the troughs of the ocean at speeds of over fourteen knots. The crew of men and boys would have battled with the sails which would have been filled like a bow ready to burst with the pressure and cracked with enough force to split them. On occasions the wind would have been so strong that one sailor would have been unable to manage the wheel by himself and had to have help. Many must have feared for their lives and wished that they had never set out on this voyage. At times the ship would have given a mighty heave, the waves rising very high and falling on deck with a heavy thud and all on board must have thought that their vessel was going over onto her side. The women would have screamed and the children must have been very frightened. At times like this it would be nearly completely dark as the hatches would be closed and sealed with an oil cover put on them to keep the sea out. Despite this, water would find its way through all the caulking and had to be continuously mopped up to stop all their belongings becoming wet and above, the rain could be heard falling heavily on the deck. Imagine the galley where the tea for all passengers ended up on the deck, mixed together and running out of the cook house across the open deck and down into the sea. Down below all their possessions would have been on the floor, flung from their places on the shelves. One account recorded that the floor was like a �general shop� containing all sorts of things, with their water bottles emptied and some slop pails that were tired of carrying their burden emptying themselves amongst the debris.

Sat: Jan 4, 1851: A strong gale and battened down. The past three days have been wet, cold and miserable.

Sun: Jan 5, 1851: We experienced a terrible thunderstorm during last night - vivid flashes of lightening lit up the seething and warring waters, and deafening crashes from "Heaven's artillery" followed. But as Dibdin says - "There's a sweet little cherub that sits up aloft," which saying is held in great respect by many of the sailors. Providence has not destined us to a watery grave; the Castle Eden ploughed her way gallantly through the tempest-riven ocean - in total darkness and again lighted on her way by the blazing lightening which zigzagged and flashed across the murky sky. It was a weird and awful scene, holding one spellbound in awe and wonder. How small is man in the hands of the Almighty! how insignificant, and how helpless in Nature's convulsive fits of rage! When everything if fine and the sun shines brightly, man oft in his pride is apt to imagine himself supreme. A storm at sea, on land, or an earthquake, humbles the haughty head, and the strongest tremble before the manifestations of the unseen power. Today during Divine Service a third marriage is announced. In the evening at 10 pm a child in steerage died.
Mon: Jan 6, 1851: Another child died at 4 am. After prayers, Miss Muriel Thurling and Mr. William Roumsley married at 11 am. They were steerage passengers and belonged to "the parish of the Castle Eden" and after the wedding all shared in piece of the "bridecake" with the compliments of the newly-wedded pair. Joy and sorrow often travel hand in hand together and at 4 p.m. in the afternoon, the two children were buried - one, Jane Lewis aged 2 years and the other, Sarah Beckingham was 13 months and this had a saddening effect on the spirits of the bridal party. In the evening, the chief-cabin passengers celebrated the Twelfth Night, a party given by the honourable ladies - an successful and pleasant evening.
Very few ships got to their destination without friction of some sort. Conditions of close confinement on board, made the task of the surgeon and the immigrant constable whom he had chosen to help aid him in keeping the peace among the people on board, very difficult. When we consider the conditions of the voyage - the enforced idleness and at time, the doubtful end, it speaks well for the selection of passengers consciously imposed on itself by the Association, that there was so little trouble on board. Dr Johnston once remarked. that being at sea was like being in prison with the added chance of being drowned and it is hardly surprising that an occasional immigrant who somehow found liquor should have drunk himself stupid. Some who found shipboard discipline stifling, the voyage became a series of attempts to subvert it. Petty bickering and quarrels were frequent so the respite with the Cape Town visit must have temporarily relieved a lot of tension. Apart from the skilled medical men who were going out with the intention of settling, most who served as surgeons were either in their first job or unable to find work elsewhere. Their pay was low and a return voyage was not always guarranteed. Despite the good deal of sickness on board, the Castle Eden lost only 3 lives - about the mortality in the general population at that time. But it was in these times of illness or death that spirits were at their lowest ebb when a loved one was committed to the vaste loneliness of the ocean. A more difficult task for the Surgeon was to prevent immigrants nourishing grievances against each other or the authorities. A complex set of relationships existed between emigrants which was to continue long after they got to their destination.
Tue: Jan 7, 1851: Fair wind - going 10 knots. Wintry weather prevails and the outlook is cheerless in the extreme. Some little diversion is created by the unruly conduct of the under-steward. The captain, with promptitude, settled the matter by administering a thrashing, and Henry will behave better in the future.
Wed: Jan 8, 1851: Light breeze - Mr Freestone caught four albatrosses and Mr Mason one, A beak of one measured seven inches in length. Our ship passed St Paul's by about 100 miles south.
Thur: Jan 9, 1851: Fair winds enable us to get along very fast at 9 knots. Another wedding takes place and Mr. Thomas Davison is the happy bridegroom on this occasion when he married Miss Ellen Godfrey.
Fri: Jan 10, 1851: Going 10 knots - wind fair all day.
Sat: Jan 11, 1851: Going ten knots. It is estimated that our rate of sailing is about 200 miles a day.
Sun: Jan 12, 1851: Going 9 knots. A heavy hailstorm passes over and the weather has become colder again.
Mon: Jan 13, 1851: Going 8 knots. The ship is now in longitude 101 degrees east still keeping near the 40th degree of south latitude.
Tue: Jan 14, 1851: Going 7 knots.
Wed: Jan 15, 1851: Going 8 knots and we are now 350 miles from New Holland. (Australia) These past three days, our speed of sailing has slackened and become slow. A piece of seaweed floated past and attracted much attention. A favourite pastime of some of the men is netting. All the birds now have disappeared, not a solitary gull can be seen and the ship's little feathered companions are greatly missed.
Thur: Jan 16, 1851: 7 knots. Today, our ship is off Australia - a source of much satisfaction. The first mate, Mr Reid, fell from the maintop, and three or four sailors fell on top of him. Mr Reid received a severe shaking, and his leg was so badly hurt as to render him unfit for duty. A child, a girl, is born at 7 p.m. to Hannah Johnson, one of the steerage passengers who hailed from Biggate.
Fri: Jan 17,1851: Going 9 knots. Evening parties continue to be fashionable - each one more jolly than the last. People speculate how much longer we will be able to enjoy the good stories and songs on board our staunch old ship, which is a home to us all.
Sat: Jan 18, 1851: Going ten knots. January 19, 1851: Sunday : Calm in the morning and with the wind fall, the cold weather sets in. A light breeze in the afternoon.
Mon: Jan 20, 1851: Going 8 knots. A birthday is the cause of celebration with Plum pudding and cakes for tea.
A complaint often made by immigrants was that they had been told that they need bring nothing on board with them and afterwards wished they had shipped extra food and comforts. They did not starve without food of their own but any food not the ship's, was an exciting interruption to the monotony of their diet. The Association, had with forethought, even supplied clothing to some people, but they let them get along with only one plate each. The immigrants took two outer suits and a dozen changes of underclothes and socks aboard. They had to have a month's supply in a bag kept in their berths -the rest of their property was stored down in the hold. When they got at it, once in every three or four weeks, they usually took the opportunity to bring up all sorts of odds and ends, and the deck would resemble a bazaar and amuse themselves driving bargains with their fellow passengers. One Scot shopkeeper successfully disposed of whiskey, dried herrings and religious tracts. There was also dismay when people found their trunks battered and their clothes damp, mildewed, infested with cockroaches or run through with jam or pickles which had spilled and sometimes theft was a problem.
Washing the clothes during the voyage was very laborious but at sea, with its absence of dust and smoke and because the decks were regularly cleaned, they did not get as dirty as on land. When a wash day was necessary, a row of tubs and barrels was lined along the ship's side and salt water was heated in coppers. Husbands assisted wives in the tasks of rubbing with marine soap and the wringing. The clothes were then hung to a rope overhead. After a rain, fresh water could be had -and there was a rush to take advantage of it. You had to guard against an unexpected ship lurch which could send women, tub, water and clothes flying.
Tue: Jan 21, 1851: Going 8 knots. After morning prayers, Mr Francis McArdle and Miss Sarah Collins marry - this is the third marriage on our ship. We are now in the longitude of Hobart Town and have run several degrees of latitude to the south.
Wed: Jan 22, 1851: Going 9 knots. Cold, rainy weather continues.
Thur: Jan 23, 1851: Going 9 knots.
Fri: Jan 24, 1851: Squally and a heavy gale.
Sat: Jan 25, 1851: A fine breeze - a complete weather change has taken place and it becomes quite warm. A child, a boy is born to Fanny Wheeler of the steerage - a curious fact, worth noticing, is that during the voyage there have been 3 deaths, 3 births and 3 marriages. The Castle Eden will arrive with her full complement of passengers. Mr Reid now resumes his duties, having almost recovered from the effects of his late fall from the maintop. A large comet is visible every evening. The warmer weather seems to have brought back all the sea birds, which have appeared in great numbers, the sea being literally covered with them. Cape-pigeons are more numerous here than anywhere else. One is caught.
Sun: Jan 26, 1851: A fair breeze and four months today since we hauled out of dock.
Mon: January 27, 1851: Going 8 knots - saw some whales.
Tue: Jan 28, 1851: Calm - a ship in sight - got the anchor up.
Wed: Jan 29, 1851: Light breeze - Mrs Johnston had her little daughter christened, the name being Hannah. . Our ship is now reckoned to be off Stewart Island.
Thur: January 30, 1851: Light breeze - saw some black fish and some whales.
Fri: Jan 31, 1851: A strong westerly gale is blowing; our ship had to tack back NW then SE so it has driven us back two degrees. Now a thick fog has fallen and nothing can be seen thirty yards from the vessel. All the ordinary sails are taken down, and the short sails are put up in their place.
Sat: Feb 1, 1851: The wind has greatly fallen and things have become more comfortable. We are approximately 450 miles from Port Cooper (Lyttelton) with a tolerably favourable run round the southward of Stewart Island. A great number of our sailors are Scotsmen. One is named Littlejohn (nephew of an Edinburgh confectioner) and is a very good singer and another sailor named Heive are greatly in demand for their songs and concertina playing. These two sailors are not returning with the ship to England as they had started with the intention of staying in Canterbury.
Sun: Feb 2, 1851: Our Divine service starts an hour earlier than usual, because we all are expecting to see for the first time the distant outline of our adopted land and the Bishop, in consideration of the general feeling of expectancy - which without a doubt he shares, cut the sermon short. We are disappointed as it is invisible. We pass the Snares, a group of dangerous rocks near the southern extremity of Stewart's (sic) Island. A strong breeze and a heavy swell on the sea. At twelve o'clock we are about 45 miles distant from Otago..
Mon: Feb 3, 1851: The day is fine and clear. There are great quantities of seaweed continually floating by and also a new type of bird is seen flying about. Bank's Peninsula is sighted at twenty minutes to one o'clock and excitement rises to fever height. All the sea around Bank's Peninsula appears to be quite red and we learn that the curious colouring is given to the waters by the presence of myriads of small insects.
Tue: Feb 4, 1851: After breakfast our Castle Eden is in sight of land and we anxiously clamber to the front of the forecastle - some to the maintop to obtain a closer view of the land of our adoption. The coast is irregular and the Peninsula is almost covered with trees and it is indeed lovely. The day is beautiful and warm and birds and fish are in abundance. The wind suddenly goes down and after furling the sails, we caste anchor between Pigeon and Victoria Bays. Our Castle Eden is within fifteen miles of her destination. A sail is in sight, supposed to be a vessel on her way to Otago.
Bishop Jackson goes around with a paper to obtain all passengers signatures and this is presented to the Captain as a testimonial, thanking him for having brought us safely to the end of our voyage. We behold in the evening the distant outline of the picturesque mountains which form the Banks Peninsula. At last, the end of our interminable and tedious voyage - we are almost within sight of Lyttleton and we expect the ship will anchor the next morning in Port Victoria.
Then, as night came on, it was deemed necessary to stand out to sea and we dropped anchor near Pidgeon Bay.

As their destination was close at hand, passengers are rejoicing as all  are heartily sick of the confinement of the ship and its continuous motion - to say goodbye to the sea forever.

With only a few more days to go, there were worries also that whether their ship would be found healthy enough to be able to set their passengers at liberty in the new land, or whether they would be kept in quarantine. As land approaches everybody is busy with extra cleaning, taking all their bedding out and scrubbing out the berths. Every nook and cranny is cleaned out and scrubbed under the watchful eye of the constable whose duty it is to ensure that the ship is not placed in quarantine on arrival.

Imagine the excitement on board as they rounded Stewart Island at the south of New Zealand and made their way up the east coast and finally journey�s end and then, to  experience unfavourable winds and add delay to making  that final land fall. Everybody would be down in the dumps as one day�s sailing became two days and each day thinking today would be the day they would land after long months at sea. As the mist cleared on each new day they would be able to see the outline of the hills very plainly which would have put fresh life into them. As they finally approached the harbour they would be able to see the hills and habitations dotted here and there.

Wed: Feb 5, 1851: At half-past three this morning, the sails were set but we were destined to disappointment for no sooner was the anchor up than the wind began to blow very hard, and drove the mizzen boom and sail quite to leeward. The wind continued strong and doubtful squalls impeded our ship's course until 3 p.m. As we had to put out to sea, the land was again quite out of sight.
Thur: Feb 6, 1851: A fine warm day and we weighed anchor at 6 a.m. Again we sighted the varied peaks of the peninsula but a dead calm came and the sun feels almost as hot as when crossing the line. Our ship is now stationary eleven miles further north of our position the previous day. During the morning, the captain is suddenly taken very ill, but to the delight of us all on board, towards evening he is recovered.
Fri: Feb 7, 1851: Wind from north-east - fair, our Castle Eden is quite close to land and slowly sailing towards her destination. At last we drop anchor at 12.30 p.m. at Port Cooper (Lyttelton), after traversing 134 days from London. The immigration agent, Mr J.E.Fitzgerald comes on board soon after our arrival and after greetings are exchanged and news given, and he takes Bishop Jackson, his wife and family, and a few others ashore. We stay on board - we will be sorry to leave our ship as we have all become attached to her - our friends are now at the other side of the world and it appears a strange new world. Lyttelton appears a curious-looking place, but has a business-like air about it, although the dwellings, etc on the hillside mostly consist of huts, a few rough shanties and tents. A barracks is in readiness for our arrival. The place presents the appearance of a beehive, as men, women and children all come to look at our ship, and last but not least, ready to welcome we fellow colonists when we should come ashore. A few Maories also are about.
William Howard Holmes (1825-1885) Schoolteacher and Artist was an Intermediate passenger on the Castle Eden. He recorded many images of the ship's arrival. Above; Label by W. Holmes transcribed in ink by Dr Hocken: 1. Rhodes�s farm, Banks Peninsula. 2. A native Pah. 3. Pulao Bay. 4. Castle Eden, 930 tons. 5. Sumner Road. 6. Town of Lyttelton. 7. Port Victoria. 8. Quail Island (abounding in good building stone)

Sat: Feb 8, 1851: A large number of visitors come on board to welcome friends and make new acquaintances. On every side, inquiries are made for "home news", while we voyagers anxiously ask about the new country. Some go ashore but the sailors struck again as they had done at the Cape and there was no-one to man the boats to put us ashore. The miscreants are put before the local magistrate and are sentenced to 14 days imprisonment abourd the ship.

Sun: Feb 9, 1851: The Rev. Mr Dudley comes on board the Castle Eden and holds Divine Service. The day is exceedingly hot. A child, a girl, was born at 1 p.m. to Martha Mumford and Mr. Henry Lesley died at 8 p.m. after 6 weeks illness, leaving a wife and two children.
Mon: Feb 10, 1851: We are still on board due to the sailor's striking and refusing to work - this has caused a little trouble. More go ashore for the first time and some take the long walk over the mountain which lies between us and the Canterbury Plains. They climb the steep hillside, following the curving lines of a narrow bridle-track.

Tue: Feb 11, 1851: Disembarked today after our voyage of 123 days had ended.
Edward Ward; His Account of the Castle Eden's arrival: Friday, February 7th - A cool morning and a cold day, overcast throughout. About twelve o'clock great sensation excited in the town by the report of the arrival of a large ship, said of course to be the Castle Eden. It was blowing strong from the N.E., and she came to anchor about two miles down. A boat went off to her immediately but was a long time reaching her. She proved after all to be the real Castle Eden with Dr Jackson and his family on board, with 200 other passengers. They had had a passage of 119 days, delayed so long from having been obliged to put in at the Cape of Good Hope from sickness on board. Dr Jackson came on shore about three o'clock and was met by Godley and the clergy. He was in the usual 'landing fever', and though the day was dismal and clouded, was in raptures with the beauty of the place, almost too much to be a permanent impression. He and Mrs Jackson slept on shore at Mr Godley's house, and I met them at tea. He has come out for a flying visit to remain a fortnight or three weeks, and return overland to England, be consecrated and return again for life. He seemed in excellent health and of course in high spirits. Yet, me-thought, he and Mr Godley did not seem to harmonize well.

The Rev. Thomas Jackson (not Dr). Designated as Bishop of Lyttelton, he came to New Zealand before consecration to discuss with Bishop Selwyn the subdivision of the Diocese of New Zealand. He returned to England after two months in Canterbury and resigned his appointment.

On arrival of the Castle Eden in February, 1851, her crew were imprisoned. They had been signed on at Cape Town to replace a mutinous staff which had caused much alarm among the passengers during the earlier part of the journey by refusing to worlr the ship and were sent to gaol at Cape Town. The second crew also refused to work the ship at Lyttelton and were handed over to the gaoler. The "Stone Jug," as the gaol is called colloquially in North Britain, consisted of a V hut of little real value in the event, of in- subordination. Lord Montagu, one of the Castle Eden's passengers, had produced his army sword on the outbreak of mutinous conduct and had threatened to put it through any sailor who refused to obey the captain - a threat which of course did not conduce to amelioration of the trouble, which had been caused largely by the crew's over-indulgence in rum.

At Lyttelton, the prisoners were placed upon their honour not to attempt to escape, and as there was nowhere to escape to, their promise was kept. In connection with the first building which served as a gaol, it is on record that the gaolor gave the prisoners half a crown each to go to the races, stipulating that they must return by closing hour, failing which they would be locked out for the night! Lyttelton Goal