Frederick Cone and Sarah Barnard

Frederick ConeFrederick Cone's death certificate states he was born at Hadleigh, Suffolk but he was born at Aldham and the birth registered at Hadleigh just a short distance away.

According to the Lands and Survey records, Fred bought 3 acres 2 roods on the north bank of the Opihi River at Waitohi on April 1st 1856 when he was only 16 years of age.
In 1857 at the age of 17 years Fred applied for a 20 acres block of land at Halswell, Junction Road (Sect 817) and this was granted on the 19th April 1859. He sold this block 21st September 1865 for 250.
Another block of 20 acres (Section 867) Old River Bed, Springs Road and another 868 at Hallswell Junction Rd 25 acres were owned also by either hin or his brother William.

The timber shortage in Christchurch was acute by 1860 and the cutting out of the Papanui Bush in 1861 focussed attention on the resources of Hoon Hay and here both Fred and brother William bought a block each in the Kennedy's and Burke's Bush areas. The Kennedys Bush Road was surveyed in the late 1850's and constructed in 1863 to provide a route up to the bush areas of Hoon Hay and Landsdowne Valley. The area was named after Thomas Kennedy who purchased 11 hectares of native forest there in 1856. Edward Coppell, Edward Murray, Frederick Cone, John Campion and John Parish ( either the uncle or the brother of Isabella Parish - John Parish was a farmer of Ferry Road where the Cones were, on the jury list of 1853) all had bush sections there.
Anyone residing within 15 miles of Christchurch Land office and able to serve as militiamen was entered on the Militia list in 1860 - on this list is Fred Cone, Prebbleton, labourer. It is likely that Fred went with his two brothers and their sister to Ashley about this time.

An adventurous type, Fred some time later went by boat from Lyttleton to Timaru landing by surf boat before there was any breakwater. He may have stayed at the accommodation house kept by Sam Williams on the beach below the present city of Timaru and would have had to travel over the broad plains stretching away from the Levels station and some three miles ahead of him, would have seen the projection of land standing out conspicuously called Pleasant Point. He  was working at the Walton flour mill on Mill Road about a mile from the Pleasant Point township near the Opihi River during the big flood in 1868. He and some others had to spend the night and part of a day on the roof of the mill. Fred purchased 85 acres on January 8th 1868 at Waitohi. This area was divided into Upper Waitohi and Lower Waitohi 12 miles from Temuka. The lower flat had a school, store and blacksmith's shop.

In those days the countryside was practically all tussock, flax and matagouri with a few rough tracks which served as roads.  It would have taken about three weeks in those times to get from Timaru through to the Mackenzie country by bullock train travelling two or three miles an hour to take in stores and bring  back wool.The "Point" as Pleasant Point was then known, was a guiding landmark and bullocky resting place for waggoners making their inland journey. They would pull in for an overnight stop where there was ready access to water from the creek and good grazing for the bullocks, to save carrying fodder. As many as 30 from two or three teams might pull in and the township grew from this camping ground. If returning from the back country they made this their stop, going on to Timaru next morning and returning in the evening. Gradually horses replaced bullocks, so a hotel to accommodate travellers was built in 1864 by Wm Warne.

By 1868 besides the accomodation house there sprang up two general stores, a boarding house, a blacksmith's shop owned by James Gammie. A tri-weekly coach service was started . There were very few houses then  but with the opening of the railway December 1875 there came rapid development. Main trafic was wool, grain and livestock along with passengers and mail. Homes were simple of cob or sod, others of wood and the more substantial citizens utilised limestone. But Pleasant Point lay on the other side of the Opihi River and it was not spanned by a bridge until after 1900, so the distance to Timaru was lenghthened by many miles or else people were reliant on fine weather crossing.

In January 1869, Fred Cone was granted 140 acres from the Crown at Waitohi but he did not immediately occupy it. On the 11th November, 1870 at the age of 30 he married Sarah Barnard at the residence of the Reverand W Kirk of Christchurch.

Intentions to Marry: - Nov 11, 1870, Frederick Cone , Occupation,  servant, age 30; dwelling place Tai Tapu, length of residence 2 years. The marriage is to be solemnized in the house of Rev W Kirk, Ferry Road to Sarah Barnard, spinster, Profession servant, age 20, living at Tai Tapu 3 years. Consent given as in the case of a minor by father, Thomas Barnard  National Archives (BDM 20/15 P494 /2296)  Witnesses - Thos. C Barnard, Watchmaker, Christchurch and Elizabeth Barnard (sister-in-law who was married to brother Charles Thomas Barnard).

At the time of his marriage Fred was working at Tai Tapu for Mr Barnett and the couple's first child was still-born at Southbridge the following year. Not long afterwards they moved to Ashley and lived in the sod hut on William's property and Fred worked in the area. Eldest son Frederick Edward was born at Rangiora and next son Albert Charles was born at the sod hut on the land owned by William his brother in 1874. About this time, Fred purchased a further 50 acres near his other land at Waitohi for 150 - he now had a holding of 214 acres.  William Cone sold his land 25th July 1874 where Fred and family lived so they moved from Ashley by horse and dray to South Canterbury where Fred had  built a sod house prior to his move on the 50 acre block. He planted some blue gums and pine trees and because water supply was a problem, he dug an 80 ft well which continued as an unfailing supply for household use until 1938 when a piped supply was installed for the district. Absence of firewood was another problem and the only source was matagouri gathered off the Opihi River bed. This acreage was later increased to 650 acres in 1970 by Rex Cone and his sons. Waitohi Homestead -(L to R) Fred(jnr), Fred, Tom, Kate, Albert, Bill, Bramwell, George, Annie and Maria ConeFred and Sarah Cone's children
Fred and Sarah were to have six sons and three  daughters - three children did not survive childhood.  Fred  had been advised not to marry Sarah as she was not strong but although she lost her first child after birth, she survived the rough and harsh conditions of those early days and at Waitohi, six more children were born William, Maria, George, Tom, Ann, Kate and Bramwell. Life for Sarah was busy - meals to prepare and children to mind in her very basic, simple sod home with few amenities - no kitchen sink, bathroom or laundry. Water had to be pumped from the well by a hand pump and cooking done over an open fire. The long-drop sufficed for a toilet down the end of the garden path. Home made butter was made from the hand milked cows, eggs gathered from hens at the bottom of the vegetable garden and the surplus would be sold to the local grocer when he called on his delivery round, a pig to consume the surplus milk and supply the year,s bacon made our early pioneers almost selfsufficient.The close knit settlers in the Waitohi district knew how to mingle enjoyment with hard work. There were two tennis clubs, one day's horse racing and athletic sports each year and a succession of concerts and dances were held in the public school in winter.
A larger house was soon needed and a two storied home was built in possibly the late 1870's.
Fred was a good farmer and established a good flock of Lincoln sheep, some of which were used as a cross with Merinos to establish a Corriedale flock in North Canterbury. The advent of the meat freezing industry caused a revolution in small farming, and sheep were bred for the fat lamb trade alternating with cropping to return the fertility to the soil, wheat and oats and  root crops such as turnips and potatoes were grown. At Pleasant Point sale yards were erected on a four acre site in 1881 flourished with the sale of cattle, pigs, horses and increasing sheep population.(Sales were the largest in South Canterbury by 1996) Sale day bcame a regular meeting place for farmers, a place to keep up with prices and discuss everything from weather to politics. It also gave fellowship to the ladies of the district did the catering, the resultant funds boosting the various groups they belonged to.

Cone Home, Brown Street, Timaru; Fred; Maria and baby son Henry, Frank Guilford, Sarah; Bill Cone and Bramwell in front, 1900

Fred also had in common with other brothers, a very good knowledge of fruit growing and established an excellent orchard, a range of plums that gave an almost continuous supply from early July to April, apples of many varieties from the early harvest to the late winter keepers, two kinds of cherries and seven different types of pears. By now most of the apple trees have died out but the pears are thriving and still yield well. Fred also planted a number of walnut trees but only one survived - Sarah declared that he killed them with kindness, but the one that grew, is still bearing nuts.Headstone Timary Cemetery
A concrete dairy was built by son Albert but it had to be demolished in 1976 as the concrete deteriorated and was also in the way of builders during extensions and alterations at that time. 

The children were a happy family - quiet and hardworking. Fred was badly crippled with rheumatism contracted when driving a wagon to various parts of the country and sleeping on damp ground under his wagon. As time went by, more and more of the farm work had to be done by the elder boys, and son George recalled spending many hours minding the sheep on the Opihi riverbed and on other parts of the farm before the gorse fences that his father had planted were grown enough to hold stock. About 1900 Fred, badly crippled and later to be in a wheelchair, with Sarah retired to live in Timaru at Browne street where they remained for the remainder of their lives. Fred died in 10th June 1917 aged 77 years and Sarah passed away 1st July 1927 aged 79 years. Their heastone at Timaru Cemetery Block D2, Plot 636.


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